Archive for inflation

The Road to Poverty Is Paved with Small Inflations

900px-Flag_of_Venezuela_(state).svgThe value of Venezuela’s currency plummeted to record lows on the black market last week, with 100 ‘strong’ bolivars exchanging for $1 (ten times lower than the official rate), and annual price inflation reaching 63%. Chavez’s successor Nicolas Maduro, continuing to denounce the “capitalist economic war” on his socialist regime, now blames airlines for trying to collect ticket revenues the government isn’t able to pay. Meanwhile, the Venezuelan economy is showing symptoms of a rapidly forming crack-up boom: shortage of basic amenities, power outages, depletion of dollar reserves by 30%, and looming debt default. As people scramble to exchange paper money for anything and everything that can still be found on store shelves, “over there”—say their Columbian neighbors just across the border—“there’s no food.”

The ‘final and total catastrophe of the currency system’—as Mises called the terminus point of any sustained inflation—was in fact brewing in Venezuela long before Maduro’s regime, and the country experienced even higher price inflation in late 1990s. But because people held the belief that prices might fall at some point in the future, and continued to increase or maintain their cash balances, the earlier stages of the inflationary process were drawn out over many years. However, two Caracas entrepreneurs have warned that it is now too late for the government to salvage anything: “people clearly haven’t had confidence in [the bolivar] for decades; and even less now… It doesn’t look like the market has much confidence in the government’s ability to get things under control”.

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Who Pockets the Gains from a Weak Euro?

5857407803_014e7e9994_mNew EU stimulus measures will begin next month with aggressive purchases of asset-backed securities and covered bonds, and will eventually increase the ECB balance sheet by approximately €1 trillion. Among their touted benefits—higher asset prices, increases in bank lending and employment, rivers of milk and honey—many expect an upswing in exports, as the depreciation of the euro will make them cheaper and more attractive to foreigners. In fact, because Eurozone monetary inflation lagged behind the Japan and the U.S. in recent years, it has—among other things—turned the exchange rate against European exporters. “Perhaps the main immediate benefit of the additional policy action is a weakening of the exchange rate,” claims the chief economist of Markit, Chris Williamson. “The lower exchange rate will undoubtedly provide a boost to exporters’ competitiveness.”

Mises dealt with the alleged stimulating effect of inflation on trade for the first time in 1907 in an essay titled “The Political-Economic Motives of the Austrian Currency Reform”. Mises explained that interest groups in Austria at the end of the 19th century pushed for currency reform so as to favor their commercial ventures. The depreciation of the Austrian florin which followed “functioned like a protective tariff against the import of foreign manufactured goods, and assisted the export of domestic products like an export premium” (Mises 2012 [1907], 13).

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Ten Reasons to Condemn Inflation

6871Mises Daily Monday, by Andreas Marquart:

Increasing the supply of fiat money, also known as inflation, leads to a myriad of social and economic ills, affecting employment, the family, emotional health, and more.


Six Myths About Money and Inflation

6849Mises Daily Thursday by Patrick Barron:

Politicians and the mainstream media have a lot of faith in the ability of central banks to manipulate, manage, cajole, energize, and tame the global economy. Unfortunately, things are not so easy in actual fact.

The Dow’s All-Time High

Photos_NewYork1_032The Dow Jones Industrials just closed above 17,000 for the first time ever. While they are celebrating the 4th of July, Americans can rejoice in the good fortune the stock market is giving them.

But wait, what’s actually driving the stock market to reach its highest level of all time?

Since its high in 2000, the Dow is up 45%. Over the same period the CPI is up 40%. Nearly all of the gain in the stock market is just because of prices going up, not because of real economic growth. In fact, if you factored inflation out of your stock returns over the past 14 years, you earned a miserly 0.2% per year.

There’s lots to celebrate this 4th of July weekend, but stocks for the long run is not one of them.

(Originally posted at Mises Canada.)

Oil, Gas, Inflation, and Cheap Money

-Boom_Town_ballyhoo-_-_sponsored_by_the_A&R_Department_-_at_the_Post_Gym_LCCN98513372.tifToday’s Mises Daily article covered the impact of government subsidies and infrastructure on the fracking boom. But there is another big player in the oil and gas boom that is routinely ignored by “energy independence” enthusiasts who claim the sky is the limit for fracking: cheap money from the central bank.

Energy companies are employing massive debt schemes to finance exploration and initiation of extraction plans. According to Bloomberg

Quicksilver acknowledges the company is over-leveraged, said David Erdman, a spokesman for Quicksilver. The company’s interest expense equaled almost 45 percent of revenue in the first quarter. “We have taken concrete measures to reduce debt,” he said.

Drillers are caught in a bind. They must keep borrowing to pay for exploration needed to offset the steep production declines typical of shale wells.

“Interest expenses are rising,” said Virendra Chauhan, an oil analyst with Energy Aspects in London. “The risk for shale producers is that because of the production decline rates, you constantly have elevated capital expenditures.”

Chauhan wrote a report last year titled “The Other Tale of Shale” that showed interest expenses are gobbling up a growing share of revenue at 35 companies he studied. Interest expense for the 61 companies examined by Bloomberg totalled almost $2 billion in the first quarter, 4.1 percent of revenue, up from 2.3 percent four years ago.

Yes, “interest rates are rising,” but they’re still extremely low in the big scheme of things, thanks to the unending new money flowing from central banks. Even with rising rates, however, fracking operations, in order to remain viable, will need to keep borrowing since, as it turns out,  fracking is extremely expensive. Bloomberg explains:

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Meats and Poultry at Record Prices

300px-FoodMeatThe Bureau of Labor Statistics’ index of meats, poultry, fish and eggs just hit an all time high. Nor are these higher prices confined to just food items. Consumer prices across the board are registering their sharpest price increases in over15 months. Inflation is accelerating on a variety of goods, from airline fares to vegetables.

This must be good news to the Fed, as it has unleashed the most expansionary monetary policy of all time over the past five years. The explicit goal of all the QE programs was to prevent prices from falling.

According to USA Today, it’s not just the Fed that should be happy with higher prices. Consumers too should be upbeat about the rising cost of living:

The recent pick-up in consumer prices is generally considered good news for the economy because annual inflation was well below the Federal Reserve’s 2% target last year. Low inflation reflects a weak economy and can lead to deflation, or falling wages and prices, which often foreshadows recession.

Never mind that low inflation would be the norm if the Fed wasn’t constantly inflating the money supply. And never mind that deflation is beneficial as it means we can buy more goods with the same amount of money (who doesn’t love sale season?). We’ll also overlook the fact that there are many workers who can’t get a job because minimum wage bars them from lowering their wages to a competitive level. Deflation in wages would vastly improve these peoples’ lives by getting them off the dole.

Lastly, while the Fed may think rising prices are a boon to the economy, perhaps Janet Yellen should trying telling that to the masses of unemployed Americans. Over 10 million Americans are officially unemployed today, and millions of others are discouraged and have given up all hope of finding a job. Rising prices for the food they buy is anything but positive news for this sizable group.

(Originally posted at Mises Canada.)

Mises Daily: There is No Tradeoff Between Inflation and Unemployment

6771There is No Tradeoff Between Inflation and Unemployment by Chris Casey

Even mainstream empirical data shows that the Phillips Curve is wrong and that inflation does not cure unemployment. More importantly, Austrian economics has long shown that, regardless of how you slice and dice the historical data, inflation causes malinvestment, booms, and busts, thus increasing unemployment.

How Inflation Helps Keep the Rich Up and the Poor Down

6767 (1)Guido Hülsmann writes in today’s Mises Daily:

If there is any truth to the socialist caricature of capitalism — an economic system that exploits the poor to the benefit of the rich — then this caricature holds true for a capitalist system strangulated by inflation. The relentless influx of paper money makes the wealthy and powerful richer and more powerful than they would be if they depended exclusively on the voluntary support of their fellow citizens. And because it shields the political and economic establishment of the country from the competition emanating from the rest of society, inflation puts a brake on social mobility. The rich stay rich (longer) and the poor stay poor (longer) than they would in a free society.

Video: Mark Thornton explains “Silver Money and Inflation”

Mark Thornton explains how silver money keeps inflation in check.

How Inflation Picks Your Pocket

Man being pickpocketedDan Sanchez writes in today’s Mises Daily

The IRS, after all, is like a mugger. You see the government demanding the money and taking it (unless, of course, you’re fooled by Milton Friedman’s withholding scheme). You see the mugger’s knife, and so you’re more likely to try to defend yourself from him.

The Federal Reserve (which does the inflating), on the other hand, is more like a pickpocket. Its taxation is far more insidious. Unless you read articles like this one, you don’t even see its hand in your pocket.

Four Ways to Value the Stock Market

Philippine-stock-market-boardWith the Dow Jones closing above 16,600 for the first time ever last week, investors are overjoyed by the signal this sends. Apparently all is well in the economy, and those pesky threats of unemployment and sluggish income growth are figments of your imagination.

Over at Mises Canada today, my daily article shows how well the stock market has been performing in something other than money. It turns out its unsettling. Since 2000, the stock market has just barely maintained its value in inflation-adjusted terms, this despite being over 5000 points higher today.

In terms of gold the collapse is even more pronounced. It takes nearly 75% fewer gold ounces to buy a “unit” of the Dow today than it did 14 years ago!

That´s not exactly what I think stock market cheerleaders have in mind when they talk about “investing for the long run.”

Read more here.

All Videos from ‘Inflation: Causes, Consequences, and Cure’

From the April 11 Seminar: Inflation: Causes, Consequences, and Cure. A seminar for High School and College Students

(Six Videos)

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Video: ‘What is Money?’ with Mark Thornton

Presented at “Inflation: Causes, Consequences, and Cure”: a free seminar for high school and college students. Hosted at the Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama, on 11 April 2014.

Photos from Today’s Inflation Seminar

Inflation: Causes, Consequences, and Cure. A seminar for High School and College Students




infl6      infl5

Tomorrow: An Inflation Seminar for High School and College Students

unnamedOnline and at The Mises Institute:
Inflation: Causes, Consequences, and Cure. A seminar for High School and College Students

Register  here. 

One of the easiest ways for the state to take our money is to inflate away the value of the money we already hold. When governments and central banks work together to create more paper money, the state’s friends and allies benefit while everyone else who holds the now-devalued currency suffers.

In this new seminar for college and high school students from the Mises Institute, our scholars will help students understand the state’s motivation to inflate the currency while examining the many effects of this backdoor method of taxation.

From hyperinflation, to disruption of entrepreneurial planning, to income inequality and to wealth destruction, students will leave this seminar with a detailed and timely knowledge of the way that inflation is being used worldwide to enrich governments and impoverish private citizens.

Attendance is open to homeschool, public, or private high school students and their chaperones or teachers, and college students. Through the generosity of one of our donors this seminar is free to everyone. To attend the live sessions, at the Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama, fill out the registration form at the bottom of this page. In addition, all of the sessions will be broadcast live andcan be viewed either from the homepage of or through the Mises Academy on the day of the event.  Special thanks to an anonymous donor for making this event possible.

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Audio: Thornton Explains the Crack-Up Boom

Interviewed by host Alan Butler, Mark Thornton explains why the Crack-Up Boom phase of a fiat money collapse is one of the scariest economic phenomena in human history.

Listen here. 

Why Keynesian Economists Don’t Understand Inflation

putting the coinsFrank Hollenbeck writes in today’s Mises Daily

Unnoticed by many mainstream economists is the fact that we are actually having the inflation everyone was so worried about back in 2009. It is simply showing up in asset prices instead of consumer prices. For some reason we consider higher food prices as bad and something to be avoided, while higher home prices are viewed as a good thing and something to be cheered. But they are both a reduction of your purchasing power. Today, home prices outpace wage growth significantly in many markets, and remain at high bubble-like levels, pricing homes out of reach of many young couples. Their incomes have less purchasing power: the money can buy less of a house, just like it can buy less of a hamburger.

By setting an inflation target, the FED did not let deflation run its course after the crash of 2008, and that was a big mistake. During the 2001-2007 boom years, housing prices shot up. This speculative bubble led to massive overbuilding of both private homes and commercial properties.

Deflating the Deflation Myth

Burst your bubbleChris Casey writes in today’s Mises Daily

If deflation does not cause recessions (or depressions as they were known prior to World War II), what does? And why was it so prominently featured during the Great Depression? According to economists of the Austrian School of economics, recessions share the same source: artificial inflation of the money supply. The ensuing “malinvestment” caused by synthetically lowered interest rates is revealed when interest rates resort to their natural level as determined by the supply and demand of savings.

In the resultant recession, if fractional-reserve-based loans are defaulted or repaid, if a central bank contracts the money supply, and/or if the demand for money rises significantly, deflation may occur. More frequently, however, as central bankers frantically expand the money supply at the onset of a recession, inflation (or at least no deflation) will be experienced. So deflation, a sometime symptom, has been unjustly maligned as a recessionary source.

Brazil’s Slow Default

After flying high for several years, Brazil’s luck is quickly running out. Citing bad economic management and one-off accounting tricks that flattered its public finances, credit rating agency Standard & Poors has downgraded the country’s debt to BBB-, just one step above junk.

With this downgrade comes investor fears that the money they have lent the South American government will not be repaid. The reality of the situation is that this is not a new phenomenon.

There are always two ways to default: the explicit and implicit way. Credit rating agencies are concerned with explicit defaults. When a country doesn’t pay interest or principal it is evident that investors have lost. A bond rating informs investors what the perceived risk is that such an unfortunate event will occur.

Explicit defaults are rare compared to their implicit counterparts. Countries often run high inflation rates to reduce the payments on their debts. Money is borrowed at a set interest rate, and by inflating the currency (which the country controls through its central bank) the real cost of repaying this debt is reduced. The inflating country gets a free lunch of sorts, while investors are left with lower inflation-adjusted returns. Credit ratings are often meaningless for dealing with this type of default.

brazil inflation 1

High price inflation has plagued the Brazilian economy throughout the past decade. Consumers most constantly grapple with increasing prices every year, but no less difficult is the life of an investor in Brazilian government bonds. Unsure of what the rate of inflation will be after they make their “investment”, these individuals are at the mercy of the central bank as it controls the money supply to suit its needs.

Many commentators will point to Brazil’s high economic growth as the reason for its price inflation. These people would do well to just consider some simple statistics from the central bank.

brazil inflation 2

Money supply growth in Brazil has averaged nearly 20% per year for the past decade, and grew by as much as 40% as recently as 2009. That’s a lot of new money sloshing around looking for a place to be put to good use. As it is spent it has pushed prices up, and reduced the returns that investors in Brazil have earned.

The threat of a default by the Brazilian government might look dire, but it would really just be making explicit the policy the country has been pursuing for many years now. If it an explicit default meant price stability in the aftermath, maybe it would be a good idea to just get the pain over with in one fell swoop.

(Originally posted at Mises Canada.)