The guns and butter model is used by economists to contrast the costs of spending resources on domestic-economy amenities (butter) or on foreign policy and war (guns). Every government knows, however, that if it plays its cards right, this need not be one or the other. Indeed, the United States with its central banks and its high worker productivity has perfected the art of spending endless amounts of taxpayer money on both guns and butter. Another name for this is the “warfare-welfare state” in which some interest groups (such as low-income voters, agricultural interests, and Social-Security recipients) are bought off with lots of domestic spending, while other interest groups (nationalistic voters and weapons manufacturers and states with lots of military bases) are bought with endless spending on the military. This is an especially flawless model if you have a central bank like the Fed that can just keep the free money coming with seemingly no end in sight.
China has exploiting this model to the fullest in recent years, and now Japan, after years of focusing on free butter, has decided to spend more on the guns.
Shinzo Abe, the author of Abenomics (see here for a detailed takedown of Abenomics) has committed his government to numerous rounds of fiscal and monetary stimulus, plus tax increases that funnel plenty of money to his political supporters.