Barter – direct exchange- is inefficient because of the lack of a double coincidence of wants. Some third medium was sought to solve this. It is called money. Exchanges are not equal, they are win-win, with each party gaining more than he is giving or the exchange would not be made.
Naturally occurring monopolies do not last long. Competition emerges to upset them. The sovereignty of the individual defines the free market. The only monopolies that do persist are those maintained by government interventions.
All action takes time. Humans use time as a tool. Time preference ranking is now, not later, although time preferences will differ over time and for different people, like children who want things right now.
Factors of Production are economic goods: scarce means used to achieve an individual’s ends. They are land, labor and capital. Each is examined. Incomes are earned by factor owners as production takes place. There is no separated production and distribution.
The immediate effect of price controls or any government intervention upon the market is shortage of goods. Price controls discourage production just when it is needed most. The economy approaches full socialization. Rent control is the easiest way to destroy a city besides bombing it.
Capitalist-entrepreneurs must anticipate supply and demand conditions of future market conditions. It is the future price - the appraisement – that must be compared to the costs of factors of production (land, labor, and capital).
What principles determine the formation of prices on the free market? The equilibrium price between supply and demand determines prices according to the value scales of sellers and buyers and their elastic or inelastic positions.
The causal realist approach began with Carl Menger, but diminished in the 1920s. Keynesianism took over with mathematics by the 1950s. Economics was definitely on the wrong track. Salerno explores the causal realist approach which Austrians embrace.